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As em­presas são cír­culos com área pro­por­ci­onal ao nú­mero de po­lí­ticos que ti­veram um cargo nela du­rante o pe­ríodo 1975-2013. Desta forma os cír­culos mai­ores re­pre­sentam em­presas por onde pas­saram mais po­lí­ticos.

Os po­lí­ticos são si­mu­lados como or­ga­nismos vivos, tendo uma série de em­presas a vi­sitar e cir­cun­dando cada uma por uma quan­ti­dade de tempo pro­por­ci­onal à du­ração de um cargo es­pe­cí­fico na­quela em­presa. A cor de cada po­lí­tico re­flete a úl­tima afi­li­ação par­ti­dária que se con­se­guiu de­ter­minar. Nos casos em que isso não foi pos­sível, são cin­zentos.

A ana­tomia de um po­lí­tico está re­la­ci­o­nada com o nú­mero de com­pa­nhias únicas que tem de vi­sitar como mostra a imagem se­guinte.

The cir­cles rep­re­sent com­pa­nies with an area pro­por­cional to the num­ber of politi­cians that passed through that com­pany dur­ing 1975-2013. That way, big­ger cir­cles rep­re­sent com­pa­nies with more politi­cians.

Politi­cians are sim­u­lated as liv­ing or­gan­isms, hav­ing a set of com­pa­nies to visit, en­cir­cling them for an amount of time pro­por­tional to the du­ra­tion of their spe­cific po­si­tions at the com­pany. The color of each politi­cian is based on its lat­est party af­fil­i­a­tion, such as so­cial­ists , Chiara Ferragni Glitter Logo Flats Free Shipping Wide Range Of Find Great Online Latest Cheap Online Exclusive For Sale 3mzTtC3J
and con­ser­v­a­tives . In cases where the po­lit­i­cal af­fil­i­a­tion could not be de­fined, politi­cians are left gray.

The is re­lated the num­ber of unique com­pa­nies that he has to visit, as shown by the fol­low­ing image.

Para além de vi­su­a­lizar todas as re­la­ções deste ecos­sis­tema si­mul­ta­ne­a­mente, é também pos­sível ex­plorar uni­versos de trá­fego de pri­meira ordem.

Cli­cando numa em­presa, isola-se o ecos­sis­tema dessa em­presa, mos­trando apenas os po­lí­ticos que ti­veram um cargo nessa em­presa e todas as em­presas que também ti­veram esses po­lí­ticos or­bi­tando em torno da em­presa se­le­ci­o­nada.

Cli­cando num po­lí­tico vi­su­a­liza-se o seu per­curso por entre em­presas, assim como se acedem aos cargos po­lí­ticos e res­pe­tivas afi­li­a­ções par­ti­dá­rias.

In ad­di­tion to vi­su­al­ize every re­la­tion in this ecosys­tem si­mul­ta­ne­ously, it is also pos­si­ble to ex­plore more spe­cific views.

By click­ing on a com­pany, one can iso­late its ecosys­tem, dis­play­ing only the politi­cians that had a po­si­tion at that com­pany and also dis­play­ing other com­pa­nies that had the same politi­cians or­bit­ing around the se­lected com­pany.

By click­ing on a politi­cian one can vi­su­al­ize his path be­tween com­pa­nies, as well as get ac­cess to his po­si­tions in gov­ern­ments and re­spec­tive po­lit­i­cal af­fil­i­a­tions.

Os dados são quase na to­ta­li­dade re­ti­rados do es­tudo « Outlet 100% Authentic Manolo Blahnik CapToe Leather Booties Amazon Cheap Price fH8DmBDM
» feito para o do­cu­men­tário « Whole World Shipping Alexander Wang Leather AnkleStrap Sandals Very Cheap Price Clearance Visit New 29NGu
» de Jorge Costa. Como se lê no es­tudo, o grupo de pes­soas abor­dadas re­pre­senta apenas uma amostra da di­mensão real do trân­sito entre cargos go­ver­na­tivos e ór­gãos so­ciais de grandes em­presas ou grupos eco­nó­micos.

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Research Highlight Reading Time: 11 min
Martin Reeves, Lars Fæste, Kevin

Empirical analysis reveals that conventional wisdom about big, risky change initiatives is often wrong.

Corporate transformation sits atop the strategic agenda for many CEOs. While transformation is ideally undertaken preemptively, in practice it is much more commonly a reaction to changing — and challenging — circumstances. Such transformations represent a fundamental and risk-laden reboot of a company, with the goal of achieving a dramatic improvement in performance and altering its future trajectory.

Given the stakes, we were startled to find that the research underpinning the design and execution of corporate transformations is surprisingly thin. As a result, transformations are often guided by beliefs that, while seemingly plausible, are more anecdotal than empirical in nature. It’s time for a more evidence-based approach.

To study corporate transformation and its success factors, we analyzed financial and nonfinancial data of all U.S. public companies with $10 billion or more market cap between 2004 and 2016. 1 We identified companies with a demonstrated need for fundamental change, namely, those companies with an annualized deterioration, relative to their industry average, in total shareholder return (TSR) of 10 percentage points or more over two years. This definition provided us with a large data set for empirical analysis including more than 300 companies across different industries over more than a decade.

Further, we trained a proprietary algorithm to quantify the strategic orientation of companies, based on semantic patterns within the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis” section of 70,000 Cheap Sale Clearance Free Shipping Popular Hermès Leather Logo Loafers Sale Marketable Pre Order For Sale EXesNMkz
. We built a prediction model to identify formalized transformation programs, based on restructuring costs and major corporate announcements (as reported by Standard Poor’s Financial Services LLC). And we conducted a multivariate regression analysis to determine the impact of a number of factors on change in TSR during transformations.

Our analysis reveals that leaders must be ready to transform their companies: At any given point in the 12-year period we studied, 32% of all large companies were experiencing a severe deterioration in TSR, and that share has stayed roughly constant in recent years. We also found that successful recovery from a severe episode of deterioration is the exception rather than the norm: Only one-quarter of the companies were able to outperform their industry in the short and long run after the point of deterioration.

Wellness inspired. Wellness enabled.

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